6.7 Doors, windows and glazing
|6.7 - D1||Design standards|
|6.7 - D2||Statutory requirements|
|6.7 - D3||Environmental factors|
|6.7 - D4||Security|
|6.7 - D5||In service performance|
|6.7 - D6||Resistance to decay|
|6.7 - D7||Glazing|
|6.7 - D8||Provision of information|
Design that follows the guidance below will be acceptable for doors, windows, and glazing.
Design should be in accordance with relevant Building Regulations and other statutory requirements.
Items to be taken into account include:
(a) noise control
Where noise levels are very high, for example near airports or motorways, it may be advisable to install sound-insulating windows, usually of special design and construction.
(b) planning requirements
Local planning authorities may impose limitations on the shape, size and choice of materials for windows and doors, for example in conservation areas.
(c) climatic conditions
Climatic conditions, especially wind speed, together with the required level of window performance (eg in relation to air tightness), may govern the size of glass panes and opening lights in exposed locations.
Items to be taken into account include:
DWELLINGS - all
All entrance doors of individual dwellings should be fitted with one (or more) securely fixed lock and keep or multi-point locking system, which has:
- at least 1000 differs, and
- a fixing which, if burst open, would not pull out without breaking the door or its frame, and
- a hardened steel bolt or inserts to prevent sawing, and
- latch and deadlocking facility.
Locking devices fitted to entrance doors should permit emergency egress without the use of a key when the dwelling is occupied. Any glazing which, if open or broken, would permit release of the snib by hand or arm entry should be laminated.
DWELLINGS - with an alternative means of escape via a door
Lock(s) should provide initial security by use of a latch operable with a key externally and a handle/thumb turn release internally. The full deadlocking facility should be engaged and be operable with a key externally and a handle/thumb turn release internally. Locks which comply with BS 8621, meet these requirements. External handles on multi-point locking systems should be twin or split spindle to avoid operating the latch.
Enhanced security can also be achieved by providing the facility to deadlock the internal/thumb turn when leaving the dwelling un-occupied. Locks which comply with BS 10621, meet these requirements.
DWELLINGS - opening direct to outside without an alternative means of escape via a door
The door should be held closed by use of a latch operable with a key externally and a handle/thumb turn release internally. The full deadlocking facility should be engaged and be operable with a key externally and a handle/thumb turn release internally. Locks which comply with BS 8621, meet these requirements. External handles on multi-point locking systems should be twin or split spindle to avoid operating the latch.
DWELLINGS - opening onto a communual access without an alternative means of escape
The door should be held closed either on a latch operable with a handle both internally and externally or a roller bolt so that the door cannot slam shut locking the homeowner out without a key. The full deadlocking facility should be engaged and be operable with a key externally and a handle/thumb turn release internally. Locks which comply with BS 8621, meet these requirements.
Timber or light steel frame walls, should incorporate one of the following:
timber sheathing minimum 9mm thick, or
The material should be the full height of the door and not less than 600mm measured from the lock(s).
A securely fixed opening limitation device should be fitted to main entrance doors in houses and the entrance doors of individual flats and maisonettes.
In sheltered accommodation opening limitation devices should be not inhibit emergency access. Alternative methods for residents to identify and communicate with visitors, without opening their door, should be considered in place of opening limitation devices.
There should be a means of giving a wide angle view of the area immediately outside the main entrance door of individual dwellings. Acceptable ways include:
- a through-door viewer
- clear glazing either to part of the door or a convenient window
- closed circuit camera and display, which is not linked to television sets.
The door should be held closed on a latch and operable by use of a handle both internally and externally. A deadlocking facility should be operable by use of a key both internally and externally. Locks complying with BS 3621 meet these requirements. Alternatively a thumb turn may be used internally in place of key operation. Locks complying to BS 8621 meet these requirements.
In addition bolts should be fixed securely at both top and bottom of the door on the internal opening edge.
Where multi-point locking systems are used bolts may be omitted.
External sliding doors should be secured by way of multi-point locking system with a minimum of three locking points incorporating mushroom headed bolts, hookbolts or shoot bolts. Where shoot bolts are fitted they should engage into the head and sill of the door frame. An anti-lift device should also be fitted so that doors cannot be lifted from their frame from the outside.
Connections between door and/or frame components which can be easily released from outside should not be used. This includes accessible screw connections.
Ironmongery for windows should be supplied as follows:
- hinges and fastenings of opening lights of windows should be of a type which prevents them from being opened from the outside when in the closed position
- opening lights on all ground floor windows and others which are readily accessible from the outside may be fitted with lockable devices which cannot be released without a key
- where the windows are required by Building Regulations to have background ventilation they may be fitted with trickle ventilators or some other means of providing ventilation which is controllable and located to avoid undue draughts. Windows with 'night vent' positions are not accepted as meeting these recommendations.
Items to be taken into account include:
Windows and external doors exposed to wind-driven rain may need particular protection to ensure they remain weathertight.
BS 6375 contains recommendations for the classification of window components according to their resistance (under test) to air and water penetration, and wind pressure. A similar classification is used by BBA for certification of windows.
Water penetration may occur not only between frame and opening leaf or light, but also between the frame and the surrounding structure. Vertical and horizontal dpcs should be provided around the frame in accordance with Chapter 6.1 'External masonry walls' (Design and Sitework).
In Scotland, Northern Ireland and other locations of Very Severe exposure, rebated reveal construction should be sealed with an appropriate sealant.
Reference should be made to Chapter 6.1 'External Masonry Walls' Appendix 6.1-A for categories of exposure to wind driven rain.
In all locations where weathertightness is likely to be a problem, additional precautions may be needed, such as:
- setting the frame back from the facade
- fixing the frame behind a rebate in the structural opening (sometimes known as a 'check' reveal)
- fixing weather boards and water bars to external doors but ensuring threshold is accessible where appropriate
- building a projecting porch
- rain check grooves to inward opening external door frames
- a combination of the above.
Where metal windows are to be used, designs should incorporate a thermal break.
Trickle ventilation is covered in Clause D4.
Mechanical ventilation is covered in Chapter 8.1 'Internal services' (Design).
Fire resisting doors and positive self-closing devices should be fitted where required by Building Regulations.
Door frames and windows and their fittings should be adequate to withstand operational loads. Structural loads should be carried on lintels, beams or some other structural element. If frames are required to carry structural loads, they should be designed accordingly.
Doors and windows should be designed and selected to avoid significant distortion, such as twisting and bowing during use. Timber shrinkage should be allowed for.
To reduce twisting, doors should be hung on hinges as follows:
|Type of door||Hinges|
|External||1½ pairs x 100mm|
|Fire door||1½ pairs* x 100mm|
|Airing or cylinder cupboard||1½ pairs x 75mm|
|Other internal||1 pair x 75mm|
|* 1 pair where rising butts are used|
Window boards may be wetted by condensation. Materials other than natural timber should be moisture-resistant.
Where doors to rooms containing a bath or WC have a securing device, it should be of a type capable of being opened from the outside in an emergency.
In sheltered accommodation, additional special provisions may be needed for all door locks, limiters and other fasteners, to enable wardens to gain access to dwellings when necessary.
The following elements of timber doors and windows should be of naturally durable timber or timber pre-treated against fungal decay:
- external door frames
- timber surrounds to metal windows
- external doors, other than flush doors.
For detailed information, reference should be made to Chapter 2.3 'Timber preservation (natural solid timber)' (each section).
(a) resist wind loads
The quality and thickness of normal window glass should be specified to suit the design wind load for the location, in accordance with BS 6262 and relevant data sheets issued by the Glass and Glazing Federation.
(b) minimise risk of injury
Where there is a high risk of accidental breakage, the glazing should be designed and selected to comply with the safety recommendations for risk areas specified in Approved Document N for England, Wales and the Isle of Man, Technical Booklet V in Northern Ireland and BS 6262 in Scotland. Where there is a particular risk, such as at door side panels, 'low level' glazing and where fully glazed panels can be mistaken for doors, toughened or laminated glass, or other materials, such as acrylic or polycarbonate, may be needed.
(c) ensure adequate performance
DRAINED AND VENTED SYSTEMS
- These systems should allow any moisture that enters the glazing channel between the frame and the edge seal of the insulating glass unit to be drained away. The system should prevent long term moisture contact with the edge seal.
A gap of at least 5mm should be provided between the frame's lower rebate and the edge seal of the insulating glass unit. Adequate drainage and ventilation should be provided by holes, slots or channels.
Insulating glass units 1m2 or greater in area should have a drained and vented glazing system, whether they are factory glazed or site glazed.
Suitable systems and installations are shown in the relevant parts of BS 8000, BS 6262 and BRE Digest 453. The system should provide adequate protection of the edge seal of the insulating glass unit.
FULLY BEDDED SYSTEMS
- Factory glazed methods should be in accordance with the relevant parts of BS 8000, BS 6262 and BRE Digest 453.
Fully bedded systems (acceptable for factory glazing only) rely on no gaps being left around the perimeter of the insulating glass units. Moisture that can reach these areas will lead to the breakdown of the edge seal.
Site glazing may incorporate fully bedded systems on the top and sides of the insulating glass unit but the rebate platform requires a drained and vented bottom bead.
INSULATING GLASS UNITS
- Insulating glass units should comply with the requirements of BS EN 1279, be CE marked and the subject of a third party certification scheme (e.g. Kitemarking).
Insulating glass units should normally have a dual seal, or single seal if of hot melt butyl, together with desiccant in at least one long and one short section of the spacer bar.
In external situations the bottom bead should project slightly over the rebate edge, and be bedded to the rebate platform.
Ensure that design and specification information is issued to site supervisors and relevant specialist subcontractors and/or suppliers.